To close out, oxytocin will not uniformly helps believe and you will prosocial choices; their behavioral consequences is mediated because of the societal perspective, personality traits, together with top-notch very early attachment (twenty-seven, 99). This features the requirement to address PDs and you will mental health from inside the standard since the an indivisible combination of environment, psychological, and you can actual points (25, 76).
This integrated, biopsychosocial perspective for understanding PDs is still novel. Most research has focused on BPD and antisocial PD (45, 100). For example, early maltreatment is more likely to produce adult antisocial behavior only in males with a polymorphism in the gene involved in the production of the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Males with high MAOA activity show less antisocial behavior even if they have experienced early maltreatment. This indicates that certain genotypes can moderate sensitivity to stressors (101). In monkeys, impulsive aggression is correlated with low cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is involved in serotonergic metabolism. However, this inherited characteristic is modulated by attachment experiences: monkeys reared by mothers show higher concentrations of 5-HIAA than those reared by peers (102, 103). (more…)